La distribuzione del reddito negli Stati Uniti

13 mar 2013

La mia comprensione dell’inglese parlato è pessima e poi non ho la pazienza di stare 10 minuti tranquillo a seguire questo simpatico video, per la verità l’articolo da qui lo preso lo definisce terrificante, sulla diseguaglianza negli Stati Uniti.

8 dic 2012

Forse più interessante del dibatto animato dai democratici è il fatto che anche fra i repubblicani il tema della disuguaglianza sembra trovare un rinnovato interesse fra i possibili leader repubblicani del futuro, Marco Rubio e Paul Ryan.

6 dic 2012

Serie di articoli sul tema del Center For American Progress.

28 dic 2011

Un buon punto di partenza per seguire il vivace dibattito in corso negli Stati Uniti sul problema della disuguaglianza è quest’articolo apparso su Slate. Il tema è quello che è stato battezzato della Grande divergenza e viene posto in prospettiva storica, a partire dagli inizi del Novecento. E’ proprio vero che chi non muore si rivede. A un anno di distanza, gli sto dedicando una pagina tutta sua.

22 ott 2011

Da quel poco che riesco a seguire, il dibattito politico negli Stati Uniti, dal movimento non ho capito bene se sichiama dell’1% o del 99%, a quello degli occupanti di Zuccotti Park, che se non ho capito male, protestano contro il troppo potere della finanza, è, almeno a sinistra, molto concentrato sul tema della diseguaglianza sociale

Questo grafico, recuperato da una mail che mi è arrivata, illustra con chiarezza le basi del ragionamento: esiste una precisa correlazione tra riduzione del tasso di sindacalizzazione, riduzione del reddito medio e crescita della quota controllata dall’1% più ricco del paese

19 ago 2011

Non sono riuscito a finirlo. Andrebbe stampato e riletto con calma. L’articolo di The Atlantic “Can the Middle Class Be Saved?” affronta, con molto acume, tutti i temi caldi della società americana di oggi. Di fatto è il sunto di un libro, ed ogni paragrafo rinvia ad uno studio che sarebbe da vedere. La sostanza comunque è nota: la crisi sta polarizzando gli Stati Uniti ancora di più di quanto non fossero e rilanciare la classe media che ne ha costituito l’ossaturaa nella seconda metà del 900 non è impresa facile. Da riprendere

21 giu 2011

Dati e, soprattutto, grafici sulla diseguaglianza negli Stati Uniti li trovate qui

20 set 2010

Copio ed incollo la mail di “The Progress Report” sui dati censuari appena pubblicati negli Stati Uniti sulla povertà.

Intolerable Poverty In A Rich Nation

Last week, the U.S. Census Bureau released its Current Population Survey, documenting the American population’s access to health insurance and family economic well-being. One stunning fact revealed by the new Census data was that “the ranks of the American poor soared to their highest level in a half a century” and that nearly “44 million Americans — one in seven — lived last year in homes in which the income was below the poverty level, which is about $22,000 for a family of four. While this is the largest number of people since the Census began tracking poverty 51 years ago,” this figure would have been much larger without the economic policies pursued by Congress and the administration. The data is sobering to a national discourse that often omits the poor. Yet, it also points towards continued action to bring the unemployment rate down and boost demand. The country must continue successful policy initiatives that have kept millions out of poverty thus far, such as the Recovery Act, and pursue additional policies aimed at addressing the alarming fact that the world’s richest country now has more people in poverty than ever before.

THE SHAME OF A NATION: The Census Bureau data finds that a shocking number of Americans are now officially classified as living in poverty. In 2009, roughly “4 million Americans  fell into poverty,” with a total of 43.6 million people meeting the income qualifications to be described as impoverished. The data also found that one in four African-Americans is in poverty, and that women are also particularly hurting. An analysis by the National Women’s Law Ce nter of the Census numbers found that the poverty rate for women rose to 13.9 percent last year, compared to 10.5 percent among men. Additionally, poverty rates “were substantially higher for women of color, approaching one in four among African-American women (24.6 percent compared to 23.3 percent in 2008); Hispanic women experienced a similar increase from 22.3 percent in 2008 to 23.8 percent last year.” Geographically, southern and rural states tended to have the most poverty, with Mississippi faring the worst with 23.1 percent of people in poverty, with New Hampshire having only 7.8 percent. GOOD POLICIES KEEPING PEOPLE AFLOAT: While the poverty numbers are shamefully high given the wealth of a rich nation like the United States, a number of progressive policies have served to keep millions more Americans from falling into poverty. After being passed in early 2009, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) — commonly referred to as the stimulus — saved or created 1.4 million to 3.3 million jobs, according to analysis by the Congressional Budget Office. Additionally, the expansion of tax credits like the Child Tax Credit (CTC), Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), and Making Work Pay tax credit, along with additional food stamp assistance and emergency unemployment compensation kept more than 6 million Americans out of poverty, according to data provided by the Census Bureau. Expanding and extending unemployment insurance — which faced enormous opposition from conservative pundits and politicians — alone kept 3.3 million Americans out of poverty. MORE TO DO: As the Center for American Progress’s Melissa Boteach writes, “We can’t exactly pat ourselves on the back when more than one in five (20.7 percent) of America’s children lived in poverty last year.” Instead, we should expand and extend policies that have served to keep Americans out of poverty and reassert ourselves to combating rising income inequality. America’s earlier efforts to tackle poverty, like President Lyndon Johnson’s “War On Poverty” — included job training, special aid to poor parts of the country, and the creation of the single payer health care system for the elderly, Medicare, that brought the poverty rate down from 19 percent to 11.1 percent within less than a decade. In just two weeks, “a job-creation engine known as the TANF Emergency Fund will expire, forcing states to begin shutting down successful partnerships with the private sector that have already created nearly a quarter million jobs for low-income families. Congress must act before September 30 to extend the TANF Emergency Fund for another year and allow this innovative jobs program to continue.” Congress also must continue reforms it made to the EITC that allowed “families with three or more children to earn a larger credit to reflect the higher cost of raising an additional child” and to the CTC that allowed low-income working parents “to count most of their earnings toward calculating their credit instead of arbitrarily counting only earnings above $8,500.” Doing so would of course cost the federal government money, but extending these tax credits would do much more to boost the economy than extending the Bush tax cuts for the wealthiest Americans, which would have little stimulative effect on the economy. Additionally, Congress should continue to extent unemployment benefits until the unemployment rate comes back down to normal levels. While the Census numbers show an alarming rise in poverty, “it’s important to remember, however, that poverty was a problem even before the Great Recession. Between 2003 and 2007 we experienced the first-ever economic ‘recovery’ on record where productivity and profits grew but poverty went up and median incomes fell. The middle class and low-income families did not benefit form the gains accrued over the last decade, which was due to the failed economic policies of the Bush administration and the focus on tax cuts for the wealthy that did not lead to growth in investment.” Only by rebuking failed right-wing policies and championing policies that expand the social safety net, strengthen labor rights, build a more humane and efficient health care system, reward hard work with living wages, and value society’s most vulnerable members, children, can the U.S. rebuild the American Dream, the idea that this a country where all can prosper, not just a select few.

30 ago 2010

Analisi del CAP sulla distribuzione del reddito negli Stati Uniti negli anni di Bush: nei suoi otto anni di presidenza solo i super ricchi sono riusciti a migliorare le proprie posizioni “Golden Years for the Gilded

5 mar 2010

Da rivedere con calma questo articolo del CAP, Center for American Progress, “What Gets Measured Gets Done. How a Supplemental Federal Poverty Measure Will Drive Smarter Policy” sulla povertà negli Usa e sulla sua misurazione. Obiettivo: rafforzare la classe media.

24 nov 2009

Impressionanti le informazioni, in occasione del Giorno del Ringraziamento, sulla povertà negli Stati Uniti. Copio e incollo da The Progress Report

This Thursday, many Americans will sit down with friends and family to enjoy a hearty meal. Unfortunately, far too many of our nation’s citizens will go hungry. A record 49 million Americans had trouble finding enough to eat in 2008. The USDA’s annual food security report, released last week, showed that the number of people who “lacked consistent access to adequate food” soared to the highest level< /a> since the study began 14 years ago. About a third of these people were forced to “skip meals, cut portions or otherwise forgo food at some point in the year” while the other two-thirds generally had enough to eat, but only by eating “cheaper or less varied foods” or by “relying on government aid.” Even more disturbingly, nearly one in four children — almost 17 million — lived in households in which food was at times scarce. President Obama called the data “unsettling” and restated his commitment to end child hunger by 2015. “These numbers are a wake-up call…for us to get very serious about food security and hunger, about nutrition and food safety in this country,” added Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack. Unfortunately, these numbers will only get worse in the short-term due to 2009’s rise in unemployment and the difficulty charity groups have had in keeping up with the increased demand.
THANKSGIVING WITHOUT TURKEY: Thanksgiving is one of the busiest times of the year for food banks, soup kitchens, homeless shelters, and other social safety net organizations, but many are struggling to meet the demand. In Houston, around 25,000 people are expected to convene at the convention center for a Thanksgiving meal, but organizers say they only have about a third of the number of turkeys they need to feed everyone. The Greater Boston Food Bank distributed 38,000 turkeys last year, but a ticker on the website shows they have raised just 4,200 so far this year. In Phoenix, St. Mary’s food bank is only halfway to its 26,000 turkey goal, and organizers said donations over the next two days “are going to be make-or-break whether or not we’re going to be able to feed everybody this year.” And in Mississippi, many soup kitchens will not be able to provide turkeys at all “for the first time ever.” The Mississippi Food Network, which supplies many non-profit agencies in the state, said the price of turkey has risen while the number of people it serves has nearly doubled since last year. “It was a real hard decision for us,” said Marilyn Blackledge, development director. “And we talked about it, we looked at the figures, and we just really decided we had to do what was overall best.”
HOLES IN THE SAFETY NET: The difficulties charities face are not unique to Thanksgiving. The poverty rate climbed to 13.2 percent in 2008 — an 11-year high — with 39.8 million people living below the poverty line. “A lot of people who used to give as donors are now coming to us and asking for food,” said Jerry Brown of St. Mary’s in Phoenix. Food banks across the country, from Long Beach, CA to Tulsa, OK to Atlanta, GA are reporting an increase in demand for their services of 40 to 50 percent.  In Fort Worth, TX, Catholic Charities has seen a 104 percent increase in “people calling for help” in the third quarter of 2009. But charities are also reporting a drop in revenue from both donations and investments. The Mississippi Food Network saw a 25 percent drop in corporate donations, while an Atlanta foundation saw a 35 percent decrease in overall giving. The charity running the Houston dinner has had “more than a dozen” corporate sponsors completely pull out while 60 percen t of the remaining donors have scaled back their donations.

REPAIRING THE SAFETY NET: Charities alone cannot address the demand, meaning the government must step in to assist. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act has already done much to help needy families, keeping six million people out of poverty and helping local food banks with direct contributions. Millions of children and their families are also fed through programs like the Child and Adult Care Food Program and the WIC (Women, Infants and Children) program created by the Child Nutrition Act, but this will need to be reauthorized next year. Vilsack called the reauthorization of the the Child Nutrition Programs “an opportunity to in one stroke confront both the challenges of obesity and hunger — with the prospect of better health and well-being in the years to come.” Obama is urging Congress to increase funding for these programs by $1 billion. But perhaps the best way to fight hunger is to fight poverty by providing greater economic opportunity. As the Center for American Progress Action Fund’s Half in Ten project notes, expanding unemployment insurance, the Earned Income Tax Credit, and the Child Tax Credit, while creating living-wage jobs will both help end hunger and stimulate the economy.

16 set 2009

Recupero, dal commento di The Progress Report, i dati dell’ufficio statistico Usa, il Census Bureau, il rapporto 2008 su reddito, povertà e assicurazione sanitaria negli Stati Uniti. Mi sembra fuorviante il titolo del commento perchè, per quel poco che ho visto, i dati limitano il confronto fra il 2007 ed il 2008 e la crisi economica aveva già fatto sentire i suoi primi effetti.

29 lug 2009

Mi sembra che la discussione sulle diseguaglianze sociali sia particolarmente viva negli Usa. Ho recuperato questo articolo di James Kwak “Obfuscating Inequality” che commenta un paper “Thinking Clearly About Economic Inequality” di un certo Will Wilkinson del Cato Insitute di critica a Krugman ed al suo giudizio negativo circa la crescente diseguaglianza nella società americana. All’articolo, oltre che il paper in pdf, sono collegati altri sei rinvii a commenti allo stesso paper. Kwak è sulla linea di Krugman. Temi da tenere presenti: diseguaglianza del reddito, diseguaglianza dei consumi, diseguaglianza della felicità.

23 lug 2009

L’occasione di questo paper “Waging inequality” è il dibattito in corso negli Stati Uniti sulla riforma sanitaria, proposta da Obama, e sul modo di finanziarne i costi. Il risultato una ulteriore riprova di quanto sia cresciuta la diseguaglianza dei redditi negli Usa negli ultimi anni. In fondo all’articoli il rinvio al pdf completo dello studio riassunto. Osservando un poco il primo grafico, che riporta la quota di reddito posseduta dal 1% più ricco degli americani, si nota che il picco più simile all’attuale, intorno al 25&, si era avuto in concomitanza con l’altra grande crisi degli anni ’30. Una coincidenza? Sarebbe da approfondire.

24 apr 2009

Articolo di Alberto Alesina “Preferences for redistribution: The crisis, reduced inequality, and soak-the-rich populism“, sostanzialmente una pubblicità ad un suo paper che costa 5 dollari, e debbo dire che mi piacerebbe capire se è un sistema che funziona, sugli effetti che la crisi economica e finanziaria sta avendo sulla percezione della diseguaglianza dei redditi negli Stati Uniti. Storicamente gli americani sono stati maggiormente propensi ad accettare le diseguaglianza fra i redditi, fermamente convinti che ognuno, se avesse lavorato sodo, avrebbe potuto diventare ricco. Da qui le differenze, culturali e sociali, in particolare per quanto riguarda il ruolo dello Stato ed il peso del welfare state, fra americani ed europei. La conclusione dell’articolo è che oggi gli americani sembrano meno propensi ad accettare le grosse fortune, in particolare se vengono da redditi finanziari.

23 gen 2009

Se non ho capito male, questo libro “The Fourth Great Awakening and the Future of Egalitarianism” del premio Nobel dell’economia 1993 Robert William Fogel, affronta con ampio respiro storico l’evoluzione degl Stati Uniti e la crescita al suo interno della diseguaglianza sociale

21 gen 2009

Da un rinvio di Krugman ho recuperato questo sito “Polarized America”, dal titolo, se non ho capito male, di un libro di successo oltre Atlantico. La grafica è estremamente spartana, ma i contenuti mi sembrano interessanti.

E questo autore, Larry Bartels, professore a Princeton, autore del libro “Unequal Democracy: The Political Economy of the New Gilded Age” e di una serie di paper sul tema della disuguaglianza allegati al suo sito. “Unequal Democracy debunks many myths about politics in contemporary America, using the widening gap between the rich and the poor to shed disturbing light on the workings of American democracy. Larry Bartels shows that increasing inequality is not simply the result of economic forces, but the product of broad-reaching policy choices in a political system dominated by partisan ideologies and the interests of the wealthy

30 ago 2008

Diseguaglianza e prezzi: la Cina ha giovato ai poveri dell’America?”   (è un pdf) Articolo da leggere con calma, per due ragioni: parla della distribuzione del reddito ma, cosa che soprattutto mi interessa, analizza la composizione dei consumi ed ha qundi quella attenzione all’aspetto finale del ciclo economico che mi interessa molto. Peccato che siano 48 pagine in inglese.

19 giu 2008

Articolo su Vox. Analisi delle ragioni della crescita della disuguglianza negli Stati Uniti. Non capisco bene quando parla dei rapporti 90-10, 90-50, ecc.. La spiegazione è soprattutto nella crescita dei lavori ad alta competenza (“Skill-Biased Technical Change,” or SBTC), ma anche questo non spiega, se non ho capito male, la forte crescita del percentile massimo, quello dell’1% più alto. Al vertice i redditi non sono deterimnati da forze di mercato e la politica può giocare un ruole per ridurre le diseguaglianze.

Only the top 10% of US earners have seen their incomes grow faster than productivity since 1966. Part of the top-earner income growth is driven by market forces (superstar economics); the only feasible pro-equality policy here is more progressive taxation. For top corporate executives, however, non-market forces (CEO-Board complicity in pay setting) are important, so other policies are warranted. Increased disclosure and improved corporate governance would distribute economic gains more evenly across society and boost firms’ value.

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Una risposta a La distribuzione del reddito negli Stati Uniti

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